Biodiesel is diesel produced from vegetable oil, which is a single long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters, mainly in industrial applications fatty acid methyl esters. Natural oils and more from the straight-chain fatty acid composition of triglycerides, transesterification with methanol, the molecular weight is reduced to close to diesel, making it a closer diesel performance. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oil sulfur and aromatics, high cetane number, and lubricating properties, is a high quality clean diesel. At the same time one of these long chain fatty acid alkyl esters also be used to make bulk chemicals and fine chemical products biodegradable raw materials, its co-product glycerin can be refined into pharmaceutical glycerine, or to 1,3 - propanediol, also has many uses.
Biodiesel is a clean diesel fuel quality. U.S. National Biodiesel Board (National Biodiesel Board, referred to as NBB) for the evaluation of bio-diesel as follows: non-toxic (more than 10% of the consumption of salt is also small); be biodegradable (with sugar equivalent); almost no sulfur and aromatics; and oil Diesel has a good blending of, you can mix any proportion against. EU biodiesel application results show that the dynamic performance of biodiesel with petroleum diesel since no difference, but in the following areas can not be compared with the performance of diesel oil: has good lubricating properties, Triphenyl Bismuth so that the fuel pump, engine block and connecting rod low wear; high flash point, in the transport, storage, use good security; high cetane number, combustion performance, combustion residues was slightly acidic to lengthen the service life of engine oil; sulfur, low aromatic content, high oxygen content, carbon residue burning low, the engine exhaust gas emission targets to meet the European standard No. 2, or even No. 3; production from renewable resources, resources are not exhausted, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
In recent years, soaring oil prices, up to 60 U.S. dollars / barrel and above, to promote the international biodiesel industry's rapid development, including incentives for biodiesel use in policy formulation and enforcement, the rapid growth of biodiesel production, the new biodiesel plant construction surging and production of bio- continual emergence of new technology diesel, etc.
Governments have developed policies and mandatory use of measures to promote the development of bio-diesel, such as the EU to take raw materials for biodiesel (rapeseed oil) planting subsidies, biodiesel tax incentives and other policy differences, also requires countries to reduce the rate of bio-diesel; 10, 2004 month U.S. President signed a biodiesel tax incentive bill, in May 2005 also visit the Virginia biodiesel plant, and on alternative energy speech, that Biodiesel is America's most promising alternative fuel, Musk R-1 through the development of bio- diesel, the U.S. will reduce dependence on foreign oil resources. Other countries such as Brazil, the Philippines, South Korea, Japan, Canada and other countries have or are developing appropriate policies and measures. Rapid growth of world biodiesel production, such as the European Union in 2002 produced a total of 1.06 million tons of biodiesel in 2003, increased to 143 million tons in 2004 and further increased to 1.93 million tons; the EU in 2010 biodiesel production reached 10 million 800 tonnes. U.S. sales of biodiesel in 2002 to 5 million tons in 2003 to 8 million tons; American Planning biodiesel production in 2011 1.15 million tons in 2016 to 330 million tons. Some other countries has also increased annual production of biodiesel. The new biodiesel plant is emerging. In Europe, France is a new 160,000 tonne / year plant is expected to operational by late 2005; British Greenergy company is building 100,000 tons / year of bio-diesel plant, commissioned in spring 2006; Biofuels companies are also building a 250,000 tons / In the device, put into operation in 2005, the size of the plant in the second stage may be extended twice. In the U.S., Dow has announced joint venture with the world's energy companies to build large biodiesel plant; Western Iowa Energy LLC and Archer Daniels Midland were in the construction of a 100,000 ton / year biodiesel plant; Cargill companies in the construction of a 125,000 t / year biodiesel plant; November 2005, the U.S. National Biodiesel Board estimates that about 45 companies are actively producing biodiesel, is planning the construction of a biodiesel plant 54. In Canada, two companies recently announced plans to invest in biodiesel. Transesterification process and constantly develop new success. The transesterification process is based on the traditional liquid acid-base (KOH, NaOH, methanol, sodium, sulfuric acid, etc.) for the homogeneous catalyst at atmospheric pressure low-temperature process, such processes are demanding for raw materials, process complexity, waste emissions of other shortcomings, and because methanol and oil are not miscible, such reactions are mass difference, affect the reaction rate and ester exchange effects. To overcome these shortcomings, some of the continued successful development of new technology. Such as the French Petroleum Institute developed Esterfip-H technology, the use of spinel solid catalyst; developed by the University of Toronto, Canada BIOX process, the use of co-solvent technology; Canada Ectek International INC. Also developed a new process, using solid catalyst and membrane separation technology; Japan's Sumitomo Corporation developed a catalyst-free supercritical transesterification process. Source: