Astaxanthin is mainly present in the organisms groups of aquatic animals, algae, fungi and bacteria. These organisms are potential sources of astaxanthin. Chemical synthesis of astaxanthin has become a reality. But which one is more economical and efficient?

Synthetic astaxanthin is more difficult. And most of them are the cis-structure. In the body, it can not be converted into the natural trans configuration. Trans astaxanthin is approved for aquaculture additives, and not allow any chemical synthesis products into the health food market. Animal on the chemical synthesis of astaxanthin absorption capacity is weak, and its coloring capacity and biological effects, the lowest much [compared with natural astaxanthin. With the rise of natural astaxanthin industry, cosmetic raw material suppliers will gradually eliminate these inefficient products. However, due to the biological source of astaxanthin yield is not high enough, the chemical synthesis of astaxanthin in aquaculture still has a competitive advantage.

The carapace of crustaceans contains astaxanthin, can make use of discarded crustacean extract astaxanthin. At present, prawns, crabs processing industry in each of the 10 million tons of crustaceans, aquatic waste. Carapace astaxanthin content is very low ash and chitin content was higher, which greatly limits the extraction of astaxanthin and reuse. At present, the silage technology, Norway and other countries with high recovery and purity than other processing methods.

It is all known that haematococcus pluvialis has highest astaxanthin content of microalgae. It has highest accumulation of astaxanthin in organisms. The accumulation is up to 4% of cell dry weight. In addition to the haematococcus pluvialis, neochloris wimmeri, chlamydomonas nivalis, chlorococcum sp, acetabularia mediterranea, scenedesmus komarekii, euglena rubida, chlorella zofingiensis snow alga, chlamydomonas sp. & chloromonas sp and green algae. Under adverse environmental conditions, it will accumulate some astaxanthin. But the shortcomings of these astaxanthin from green algae are: low-growing, require a longer training period; astaxanthin accumulation is the product of stress in the normal growth under the conditions of synthesis of little or synthesis; Stress induction of astaxanthin accumulation and algal cell biomass accumulation is a contradiction.

Some fungi can also synthesize astaxanthin, such as phaffia rhodozyma, rhodotorula rubra and drenniophora sp. With cryptococcus, sporobolomyces and rhodotorula glutinis, etc. In phaffia yeast, astaxanthin has higher accumulation in the wild strain of about 0.05% of cell dry weight, certain mutant strains is up to 0.3%. The carotenoids’ main component is astaxanthin. Phaffia yeast is also considered the most appropriate addition to the rain pluvialis outside astaxanthin source. However, astaxanthin accumulation in phaffia yeast and cell growth rate is also a contradiction. It often changes the fermentation conditions and is used to increase the synthesis of astaxanthin cell production. The production rate of thallus is reduced. Astaxanthin suppliers are searching for new application areas actively.

It is well known that bacteria such as mycobacterium lacticola, brevibacterium, agrobacterium aurantiacum, alcaligenes and parococcus carotinifaciens can synthesize astaxanthin. The mycobacterium lacticola only produces astaxanthin in the hydrocarbon medium. It can synthesize astaxanthin on nutrient agar Brevibacterium grows in the oil and the biomass is only 3g / L in end of the fermentation. At that time, the pigment amount is only 0.3%. Taking into account slower growth rate of bacteria, lower astaxanthin content and the disadvantage of hydrocarbon fermentation, the bacteria is difficult to have the production value. The amounts of pigment synthesized in these strains are very low. There are almost no values.Source: